Mercury is the first planet from the Sun. The distance of the planet Mercury from the Sun is 35.98 million miles. Since it is close to the Sun, it is hard to observe.
Mercury is a terrestrial planet. It is made of solid core and rock. The core of Mercury is made of Iron. 70% of Mercury is made of metallic material and 30% of Mercury is made of silicate material.
The orbit of Mercury is elliptical. When Mercury is close to the Sun the distance is 47 million km, it is known as Perihelion. When Mercury is far from the Sun it is 70 million km, it is called Aphelion.
Mercury is the fastest traveling planet. The planet Mercury travels at a speed of 50 km (31 miles) per second.
Mercury is the smallest planet in the Solar System. The diameter of the planet Mercury across the equator is 3,031 miles (4,878 km).
A day on Mercury is 58.646 Earth days. The rotation of Mercury on its axis is very slow. It takes 59 Earth days to make one rotation. It has a very long day and night.
A year on Mercury is 87.97 Earth days. Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun so the revolution is not long. The revolution, it takes to orbit around the Sun is 87.97 Earth days.
Mercury is the most cratered planet. The surface of Mercury is covered by craters due to the impact of comets and meteors. A crater larger than 250 km is called Basin. The largest crater is called Caloris Basin, its diameter is 1,550 km.
Mercury is a wrinkled planet. The wrinkles of planet Mercury are called Lobate Scarps. The surface of Mercury got wrinkled, when the core cooled and contracted.
At night the planet Mercury gets very cold. The temperature at night can reach -180ºC (290ºF). As, there is no atmosphere on planet Mercury to trap the heat it received from the Sun during the day.
Mercury has a thin exosphere. Mercury has no atmosphere but a thin exosphere. It is made of atoms blasted off the surface by the solar wind and striking micrometeoroids.
Mercury is the second-hottest planet in the Solar System. Though Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun, it is the second hottest planet. Mercury has no atmosphere to retain heat. The temperature of Mercury is 430ºC (800ºF). Venus is the hottest planet in the Solar System.
Mercury is the second densest planet in the Solar System. 80% of the planet Mercury is metallic core making it the densest planet after Earth.
The next transit of Mercury is on November 13, 2032. When Mercury passes between the Sun and Earth, it is called the transit of Mercury. In a century, the transit of Mercury occurs 13 times. The last transit of Mercury was on November 11, 2019.